Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Delving Into The Series Of Tubes: How Internet Backhaul Works And Why We Need More

These commentators expect a need for a significant increase in the number of IXPs, in the next decade, from the current 20 major locations to a future with 200 such locations. The basis for this assessment is the increased use of fixed and wireless broadband access throughout the world. A significant proportion of the users of these connections are in countries and regions that are under served. Much of their traffic will be sourced or routed from outside their region if IXPs are not available for content and services providers to further localise this traffic. This results in higher costs for transit. The OECD did a nice job explaining in 2012 the importance of internet exchange points to the cost of transit, showing how places with more IXPs saw lower prices for transit and in effect became broadband exporters. Europe has moved to this model, while the U.S. has a slightly different for-profit IXP model that may be transitioning over to the more cooperative European model, thanks to the Open Internet Exchange organization . But IXPs are only part of the problem. First, a bit about backhaul. The internet is a series of networks that connect to each other at interconnection points located in data centers. Your ISP provides whats known as last-mile service, which goes from a business or home back to a central office or head end owned by the ISP. At that point, your traffic heads out to a transit provider that connects to networks owned by content companies, retailers and clouds. If the traffic needs to cross the ocean, it will travel on submarine cables . These transit providers long-haul and middle-mile networks, as well as the submarine cables, are all examples of backhaul how last-mile traffic gets back to the internet itself. The report concerns itself mainly with submarine cables, though. Many developing areas need more pipes connecting them to other parts of the world. This is both an economic issue (more competition between pipe owners lowers prices) as well as a resiliency issue (more pipes ensure that cable cuts will not shut down the communications network ). Not only do these areas need more submarine cables, but the ownership structure is changing, with big internet companies like Google and Facebook investing in backhaul at the submarine cable level as well as long haul fiber across countries. The OECD report lays out a detailed history of how liberalization and increased competition on the submarine cable side can lower prices and boost demand for internet-based services. In fact, the biggest takeaway from the OECD report which should resonate with all internet stakeholders, from the ISPs to the content guys is that the more open the system is in terms of access and peering, the more demand there is for these networks. That means ISPs that are trying to block content from entering their networks or force transit providers to pay for peering are doing their part to take more of the overall internet pie, but doing nothing to enlarge it. Meanwhile, efforts to put more IXPs in place, as Google has done in Kenya, help promote cheaper broadband and demand for more broadband.
For the original version visit http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/gigaom/articles/2014_02_18_delving_into_the_series_of_tubes_how_internet_backhaul_works_and_why_we_need_more.html

Monday, February 17, 2014

what Elements Make Up A Good Children's Book?

With so many children's books to choose from, it can feel overwhelming to head to the bookstore or pay a visit to the library. To make reading more enjoyable and educational, it is important to look for the elements that are usually found in the very best children's books. By learning what makes a good children's book, you can know how to select them for your own child in order to maximize their benefit and enjoyment of their reading experience.

Depending on the target age range and reading level, many books for younger children or middle school children feature illustrations. Especially for children who cannot yet read independently, the illustrations are not just fun to look at, they also help the child understand the story. Look for books with interesting, distinctive pictures that capture your child's attention and spark the imagination. For some children, this may be realistic watercolors, while others may prefer stylized cartoons. Exposing your child to new artistic styles can also help expand his or her horizons. Children can learn to interpret scenes and understand emotions or relationships by viewing these illustrations.

The best children's books feature strong, interesting writing. Instead of condescending to kids or being geared towards adult tastes, these books show that the author has experience with the types of language and stories that children truly respond to. If the book tackles serious subjects, it should do so in a respectful and age appropriate way. The vocabulary is varied enough for children to learn some new words, but also familiar enough to help them feel confident. Overburdening children with unfamiliar vocabulary can cause them to disengage from the story and may turn them off of reading completely.

A good children's book will tell an interesting story. Kids respond well to plots that move along at a good pace and keep the reader guessing. The characters should be easy to relate to, whether they are funny, smart, goofy, or thoughtful. This is especially true of the main character. When a child can see aspects of himself or herself in a protagonist, it makes the book more engaging.

If the book has a message or moral, it should be subtle and not overly forceful or preachy. The moral or lesson should emerge naturally from the plot and character interactions. To ensure that a book contains appropriate moral content, parents should read the entire book before giving it to their children. Doing this will ensure that the book meets the parents standards and ideals that they want their children to learn.

Some parents may prefer to choose books that have won awards and honors, or books known as classics. While these can definitely be good guidelines, you should also feel free to explore new or lesser known books, exposing your child to the wide, varied world of literature. There are many good books out there but there are many more bad ones, so choose carefully and your children will thank you.